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Glossary

Values and lifestyles (VALS) research

A research method which psychologically groups consumers based on certain characteristics such as their values, lifestyles, and demographics.

Vertical discount

A reduced rate offered to advertisers who purchase airtime on a broadcast medium for a limited amount of time, e.g., one week.

Voice-pitch analysis

An advertising research technique of analyzing a subject's voice during their responses, to test their feelings and attitudes about an ad.

Voiceover (VO)

The technique of using the voice of an unseen speaker during film, slides, or other voice material.